Diabetes News

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Topical Erythropoietin Treatment Accelerates the Healing of Cutaneous Burn Wounds in Diabetic Pigs Through an Aquaporin-3-Dependent Mechanism

We have previously reported that the topical application of erythropoietin (EPO) to cutaneous wounds in rats and mice with experimentally-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) accelerates their healing by stimulating angiogenesis, reepithelialization, and collagen deposition, and suppressing the inflamm...

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Overexpression of kinase-Dead mTOR Impairs Glucose Homeostasis by Regulating Insulin Secretion and Not {beta}-Cell Mass

Regulation of glucose homeostasis by insulin depends on β-cell growth and function. Nutrients and growth factors stimuli converge on the conserved protein kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), existing in two complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2. To understand the functional relevance of mTO...

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Radiomanganese PET Detects Changes in Functional {beta}-cell Mass in Mouse Models of Diabetes

The noninvasive measurement of functional β-cell mass would be clinically valuable for monitoring the progression of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, as well as the viability of transplanted insulin-producing cells. Although previous work employing magnetic resonance imaging has shown promise for...

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Pair-Feeding, but not Insulin, Phloridzin, or Rosiglitazone Treatment Curtails Markers of Beta-cell Dedifferentiation in db/db Mice

Beta cell failure is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. Among several cellular biological mechanisms of cellular dysfunction, we and others have recently proposed that dedifferentiation of beta cells can explain the slowly progressive onset and partial reversibility of beta-cell failure. Accordingly,...

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SOX4 Allows Facultative {beta}-Cell Proliferation Through Repression of Cdkn1a

The HMG-box transcription factor, SOX4, is the most highly expressed SOX family protein in pancreatic islets, and mutations in Sox4 are associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We utilized an inducible β-cell knockout mouse model to test the hypothesis that ...

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Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance in Primary and Secondary Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with hepatic insulin resistance and may result primarily from increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis (PRIM) or secondarily from adipose-tissue lipolysis (SEC). We studied mice with hepatocyte- or adipocyte-specific sterol regulatory-el...

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Hypoglycemic Effect of Combined Ghrelin and Glucagon Receptor Blockade

Glucagon receptor (GcgR) blockade has been proposed as an alternative to insulin monotherapy for treating Type 1 diabetes mellitus since deletion or inhibition of GcgRs corrects hyperglycemia in diabetic models. The factors regulating glycemia in a setting devoid of insulin and glucagon function ...

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Protective Effect of Let-7 miRNA Family in Regulating Inflammation in Diabetes-Associated Atherosclerosis

The let-7 miRNA family play a key role in modulating inflammatory responses. Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, and endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction are critical in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, including in the setting of diabetes. Here we report that let-7 levels are decre...

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Intramyocellular Ceramides - Sub-Cellular Concentrations and Fractional De Novo Synthesis in Postabsorptive Humans

We investigated the relationship between insulin resistance markers and subsarcolemmal (SS) and intramyofibrillar (IMF) ceramide concentrations, as well as the contribution of plasma palmitate (6.5 h infusion of [U-13C]palmitate) to intramyocellular ceramides. Seventy-six postabsorptiv...

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